Dr. Appel is an assistant professor at the Global Education Center of Waseda University in Tokyo, Japan. He is responsible for the Academic Writing and Discussion in English Program (AWADE) which accepts approximately 1,000 English learners each year. His research focuses primarily on examinations of second language (L2) English academic writing by way of corpus analyses. Specific topics of interest include, the role of formulaic sequences in assessments of L2 English proficiency, methods of improving identification and extraction of pedagogically valuable formulaic sequences, first language (L1) related differences in L2 English, and the role of explicit discourse markers in L2 English academic writing. His research has been published in Language Assessment Quarterly, Journal of English for Academic Purposes, System, and International Journal of Applied Linguistics.